Ana Səhifə / Haqqımızda / Hesabatlar


Geology and Geochemistry of Mud-Volcano Ejecta, Azerbaijan

Geology and Geochemistry of Mud-Volcano Ejecta, Azerbaijan

  • The executive companies: GIA / EXXON
  • The year of publication: March 1999
  • Code: -
  • Volumes: total 1
    volumes with appendixes in same amount: 1



This report summarizes the results of a joijnt study between the Geology Institute of Azerbaijan and Exxon Ventures (CIS) Inc. The joint study investigated the geology of geochemistry of lithified ejecta brought to the surface by mud-volcanoes in the Gobustan area of Azerbaijan.

The main objectives of this study were to build a better understanding of the source rock depositional environmnets through the analysis of ejecta. These lithified rock fragments were analyzed in terms of their lithology, biostratigraphy, and organic geochemistry. Age-dated samples were placed in a regional and stratigraphic context.

Lithoclasts brought to the surface by erupting mud-volcanoes offer a unique opportunity to characterize the sedimentary section which is generally too deep to be sampled by conventional drilling. The mud-volcanoes in the Gobustan area of Azerbaijan are rooted within the Oligocene-Miocene section of the Maikop Formation. In the context of pertoleum exploration, the lithified rock fragments brought to the surface offer the following:

  • Reconstruction, through biostratigraphic and lithologic analyses, of the sedimentary section beyond present-day drill depths;
  • Assessment of the source rock potential of organic-rich rocks;
  • Assessment of the thermal maturity level of the sedimentary section, and
  • Opportunity for regional and vertical mapping of rock properties

    The conclusions of the present study are:

    • The mud-ejecta samples are immature to early mature with respect to hydrocarbon generation;
    • With a geothermal grdaient of 200C/km, the early mature ejecta-samples are likely derived from about 4 km depth. (This applies for samples GIA-18 (Koun/M.Paleogene) and GIA-76 (Maikop), from the Osmanbozdag and Boyuk Kamizadag mud-volcanoes, respectively).
    • Organic sulfur contents are low. Free sulfur present in the depositional environment from early sulfate reduction has mostly bound with iron to form pyrite. The results are generation of sweet crudes and gases.
    • The Maikop samples are, for the most part, dominated by algal organic matter as evidenced by visual kerogen and biomarker analyses. As with the Maikop outcrops, the lithology and organic matter content of the Maikop can vary significantly from laminated shales to sandstones and marine algal to herbaceous and terrigenous organic matter.
    • Based on the geochemistry results, it apperas that the Maikop section envolved from an overall transgressive system during early to Middle Maikop (shorelines moved further away from our sampling points), followed by a highstanding system Late Maikop and Upper Miocene (shorelines, amd associated terrigenous input, closer to our sampling sites).


    Geology and Geochemistry of Mud-Ejecta Samples

    IntroductionStudy ObjectivesMud VolcanoesSignificance of Mud-Ejecta


    Geological and Geochemical AnalysesInterpretations

    Results and Discussion

    StratigraphyEjecta DatabaseEjecta LithologyEvaluation of Data IntegratyEvaluation of HC stainingOrganic Richness and QualityOrganic Matter Quality and MaturitySulfur Analytical DataTiming of HC GenerationConclsuions


    Appendix A: Modeled Stratigraphic Sections at Mud-Volcano Localities


    Appendix B: Photographs of Mud-Ejecta (photos of analyzed rocks with age and their type dating)


    Appendix C: Thin Section Photographs and Descriptions


    Appendix D: Pyrograms from Rock Eval Pyrolysis


    Appendix E: Photographs of Kerogen Concentrates


    Appendix F: Solvent Extraction Data


    Appendix G: Pyrograms from Pyrolysis-GC


    Appendix H: Gas Chromatograms of the Saturate Fraction of the Extractable Organic Matter


    Appendix I: GC / MS (Biomarker) data of the Saturate Fraction of the Extractable Organic Matter


    Appendix J: Kinetics Data
An integrated Geological / Sedimentological, Biostratigraphic, and Geochemical Regional Study of the Main Petroleum Provinces of Azerbaijan

An integrated Geological / Sedimentological, Biostratigraphic, and Geochemical Regional Study of the Main Petroleum Provinces of Azerbaijan

  • The executive companies: GIA / APTI
  • The year of publication: March 1998
  • Code: -
  • Volumes: total 7
    volumes with appendixes in same amount: 7



This study for the first time puts together data from several areas of the Caspian Basin selected for a multi-disciplinary analytical approach. The three sample sets are shortly described hereafter:

The Organic Geichemistry sample set consisted of:
12 Outcrop samples
49 Oil samples
289 Core samples
Areas covered:
Baku Archipelago
Absheron Peninsula
Lower Kura Depression
Absheron Sill

The analyses include:
Part 1: Organic Geochemistry
TOC, Rock-Eval, GC, GC / MS, MSSV, Osotope ratios, Fission Track, Sulfur content, API Gravity, etc.

The Biostratigraphy sample set consisted of:
59 Outcrop samples
289 Core samples
Areas covered:
Baku Archipelago
Absheron Peninsula
Lower Kura Depression

The analyses include: Part 2: Biostratigraphy
Palynology, Foraminifera, Ostracods, Nannofossils and fish remains.

The Sedimentology sample set consisted of:
~130 Core samples
Areas covered:
Baku Archipelago
Absheron Sill
Lower Kura Depression

The analyses include:
Part 3: Sedimentology
XRD, SEM, Petrology, Porosity and Permeability

The study specifically encompasses:

  • the type outcrop sections in the Absheron Peninsula: Mehtiabad (Maykopian, Tarkhanian and Chokrakian),
  • the Kirmaky Mountain (Pontian),
  • the Kirmaky Valley (Lower Productive Series - PK, KS, NKS, NKG Suites; Upper Productive series - Pereryv, Balakhany Suites),
  • the Beyuk-Shore (Upper Productive Series - Balakhany, Sabunchi, Surakhany Suites) and
  • the Lower Kura Depression: Babazanan (Upper Productive Series - I Babazanan Suite)

The outcrop sections were studied and correlated with the well sections, which will be useful for the understanding of the Stratigraphy and Biostratigraphy of potential reservoirs and potential source rocks.

The three parts stand by themselves and this particular copy might or might not have all three parts depending on the license acquired. The combination of the area and the disciplines is unique and will serve the reader well in understanding the hydrocarbon system of entire area. We believe that the completeness of the data presented here will make this report a data repository that is worthwhile coming back to again and again. To make the access to the data more conevient and increase the utility of the product as much as possible of the data has been provided on disc. All data presented has been produced or subcontracted by APTI and GIA. Utmost care has been taken to provide correct identification and classification in all parts of the study. However, as with all original work, some misidentification might have escaped our quality control efforts.

Individual introductions to the three parts of the study lead into each discipline. Location maps are provided for each sample set. The sample sets for Biostratigraphy, Organic Geochemistry and Sedimentology overlap considerably but are not identical. Tis gives the reader the opportunity to investigate a significant portion of the study area in great detail. The biostratigraphic data is collated by structure, whereas the geochemical data is provided on a sample basis in the order the samples were analyzed. Especially the geochemistry data has been provided with location and formation information, which will allow theuser to retieve and sortr the data in any desired way.

This report intentionally stays away from detailed interpretation of the complex area but rather provides data, graphics abd software to enable the reader to draw conclusions in light of additional geological information that is might be available to your company. The scientists behind the study (see list of contributors) are available to you for integration of the study with other data, additional analyses, or related projects.


Part 1: Geochemistry (Volumes 1, 2, 3, 4)


Table of Contents
Study Introduction
Geochemical Introduction
Compact Disk Contents
Location Map and Key
Oil Sample List
Rock Sample List


Data Summary - Oils
Data Summary - Rocks
Well and Formation Profiles
MSSV Pyrolysis
Oils Data Table
Oils GCPeak Data
Oils Biomarker Peak Data
Oils Aliphatic GC Peak Data
Oils Aromatic Peak Data
Oils MSSV Peak Data
Rocks Screening Data
Rocks Extract Data
Extracts GC Peak Data
Extracts Biomarker Data
Extracts Aliphatic Peaks
Extracts Aromatic Peaks
Extracted Rock MSSV Peaks
Analytical Methods
Peak Name Abbreviation Key

Oil Summaries
Rock Summaries (includes Sample ID, Sample Type and Well Name)


Fission Track Data

Part 2: Biostratigraphy (Volumes 1, 2)






Kitmaky Mountain
Kirmaky Valley
Beuk Shore


8 March
Yanar Tava









Part 3: Sedimentology (Volume 1)


Lithological Legend
List of selected core samples for sedimentological examination
Location Map of the South Caspian Sea

1. Litho-facies characteristics of PLiocene-Miocene deposits

1.1. Litho-facies characteristics of the Productive Series (Kua and Araks facies)
1.2. Depositional Environments
1.3. Comparison of the Sedimentation Styles, Petrography and Prospectivity of the Paleokura and Paleovolga Systems

2. Petrography and Reservoir Quality Characterization of 100 Samples

2.1. Reservoir Quality Assessment (Permeability, Porosity, Sorting, Coefficient, etc.)



2.2 Thin Section Petrographic Description with Points
2.3. Scanning electron Micrographs


Hydrocarbon Prospectivity of North-Eastern Azerbaijan

Hydrocarbon Prospectivity of North-Eastern Azerbaijan

  • The executive companies: GIA / First Exchange Corporation
  • The year of publication: March 1997
  • Code: FEC 3082
  • Volumes: total 2
    volumes with appendixes in same amount: 2


Most of the geological studies so far carried out by western oil companies and consultancies have focused on either the highly prospective main Apsheron Trend or the Kura Basin. This study has concentrated on the area of Northeastern Azerbaijan and adjacent offshore area to the east of the Greater Caucasus, between the Apsheron Peninsular and the Dagestan Border. This area includes the Siazan producing oilfield and a large number of "prospective structures".

In this area hydrocarbons occur in a number of deeper horizons including the early Tertiary, Cretaceous and Jurassic. Little is presently available about the hydrocarbon potential of these deeper intervals, although a Pre-Pliocene Prospectivity Study previously carried out by the GIA in collaboration with the BP/Statoil Alliance (and now being marketed by First Exchange/GIA) has highlighted some of the potential. This report has built on that earlier work by incorporating new well and seismic data, extending the analysis of the reservoir potential of key outcrops, and providing detailed petrographic studies. The latter are based on the GIA core collection which contains the only remaining core samples in the area, supplemented by selected outcrop material. It includes full modal analysis, grain size distribution, diagenetic history and reservoir quality. In addition, geochemical modelling has been carried out in order to assess the maturation history of various potential source rocks. Also included in the study are published and unpublished Russian data on reservoir quality and on the exploration history of the fields and prospective structures.

These analyses have been been used to provide a classification of the main hydrocarbon plays and an initial assessment of the remaining potential.


  1. Well data from offshore and onshore fields including electric logs and cores.
  2. Descriptions of onshore outcrops in the Jurassic, Cretaceous and early Tertiary.
  3. Seismic data.
  4. Geochemical Data.
  5. Published and unpublished Russian data.


The report consists of two volumes:

Volume I (A4) Text and Appendices

Volume II (A3) Figures, Enclosures and Appendices

All figures and enclosures are in colour and available in digital form. All tables are available in digital form (Excel). All well logs have been digitised and are available in LAS format, as scans of the original Russian logs and as composite logs (1:500 scale).

  • Stratigraphic Correlations
  • Detailed petrographic studies of selected core and outcrop material (60 thin sections)
  • Outcrop descriptions and graphic logs (Early Tertiary to Mesozoic) with sedimentological and sequence-stratigraphic interpretation
  • Representative seismic sections (scanned and re-plotted)
  • Structure maps and cross sections
  • Geochemical modelling (Basinmod)
  • Synthesis of tectonic, stratigraphic and sedimentological evolution
  • Summary of available porosity and permeability data
  • Summary of all known hydrocarbon discoveries and ‘prospective structures’
  • Synthesis and evaluation of hydrocarbon prospectivity


This project is a joint study between the following organisations:




The main evaluation has been carried out by Dr. Colin Jonesof Collinson Jones Consulting Ltd (UK). For the past 9 years he has carried out a number of studies in the North Sea, the North Caucasus and Kazakhstan. Before that he was a Senior Geologist with BP and Britoil. The petrographic work has been carried out by Dr. Giancarlo Rizzi of Core Carbonates (UK). Geochemical modelling has been undertaken by OceanGrove Geoscience in Aberdeen and Geochem Group (Chester, UK) have undertaken a further oil analysis.

A number of geological specialists from the GIA (Sedimentary Geology, Geochemistry and Oil and Gas divisions) have also worked on the study or provided advice and expertise on the local geology, availability and interpretation of data, and logistical support in the field.


Executive Summary

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Scope and Aims of Study

1.2 Methodology

1.3 Personnel

1.4 Geography and Infrastructure

Chapter 2 Stratigraphy and Tectonic Evolution

2.1 Tectonic Elements and Structure: Onshore

2.2 Tectonic Elemts and Structure: Offshore

2.3 Stratigraphic Background

2.4 Mesozoic Stratigraphy and Tectonics

2.4.1 Lower - Middle Jurassic

Upper Jurassic

2.4.3 Latest Jurassic (Tithonian) to early Lower Cretaceous (Berriasian)

2.4.4 Lower Cretaceous (Valanginian to Albian)

2.4.5 Upper Cretaceous

2.5 Tertiary (pre-Pliocene) Stratigraphy

2.5.1 Palaeocene (Sumgaiet Suite)

2.5.2 Eocene (Koun Suite)

2.5.3 Oligocene-Early Miocene (Maykop)

2.5.4 Middle Miocene (Spireilis Beds)

2.5.5 Miocene-Late Miocene (Diatom Suite)

2.5.6 Late Miocene (Pontian)

Chapter 3. Reservoir Geology


3.2 Sedimentology and Depositional Systems

3.2.1 Lower- Middle Jurassic

3.2.2 Upper Jurassic

3.2.3 Latest Jurassic (Tithonian) to early Lower Cretaceous (Berriasian)

3.2.4 Lower Cretaceous

3.2.5 Upper Cretaceous

3.2.6 Paleocene-Eocene

3.2.7 Oligocene-Early Miocene

3.2.8 Mid-Late Miocene

3.3 Petrography and Reservoir Quality

3.3.1 Jurassic

3.3.2 Lower Cretaceous (Berriasian- Hauterivian)

3.3.3 Lower Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian)

3.3.4 Upper Cretaceous

3.3.5 Eocene

3.3.6 Oligocene

3.3.7 Miocene

3.4 Summary and Conclusions

Chapter 4. Hydrocarbon Prospectivity

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Source Rocks and Maturity

4.3 Reservoirs and Seals

4.4 Prospectivity of the Precaspian-Guba Region

4.4.1 Introduction

4.4.2 Siazan Oilfield

4.4.3 Talaby Gaynarja Trend

4.4.4 Structural Highs

4.5 Prospectivity of the Mesozoic Fold Belt

4.6 Prospectivity of the Offshore Area (Pre-Productive Series)

4.7 Summary and Conclusions



(Volume I)

Appendix I Field Outcrop Data: Written Summaries

Appendix II Data on Fields and ‘Prospective Structures’

Appendix III Geochemical Data<

Appendix IV Porosity-Permeability Data

(Volume II)

AppendixV Geographical Location of Outcrop Sections, Petrography and Geochemistry Samples.

Appendix VI Petrographic Data: Modal Analysis, Grain Size and Porosity.

Appendix VII Composite Well Logs

1. Composite Well Log Agzibirchala # 1

2. Composite Well Log Yalama # 14

3. Composite Well Log Khudat # 5

4. Composite Well Log Gusary # 1

5. Composite Well Log Khachmas # 2

6. Composite Well Log Talaby # 14

7. Composite Well Log Zagly # 1253 (Siazan)

8. Composite Well Log Amirkhanly # 1547 (Siazan)

9. Composite Well Log Tekchay # 3

10. Composite Well Log Sitalchay # 3

11. Composite Well Log Shurabad # 14

12. Composite Well Log Gaynarja # 6

Appendix VIII Seismic Data

1. Seismic Shotpoint Map (Onshore)

2. Seismic Line 870708

3. Seismic Line 870208

4. Seismic Line 860108


1.1 Geography

2.1 Tectonic Elements

2.2 Top Mesozoic Structure Precaspian-Guba (Onshore)

2.3 Top Mesozoic Structure Precaspian-Guba (Offshore)

2.4 Structural Cross-Sections

2.5 Top Mesozoic Structure North Apsheron (Offshore)

2.6 Top Chokrakian Structure North Apsheron (Offshore)

2.7 Siazan Structural Cross-Sections

2.8 Main Stratigraphic Units (Mesozoic)

2.9 Correlation of Jurassic sequences in the subsurface

2.10 Main Stratigraphic Units (Tertiary)

3.1 Palaeogeography and Facies: Aalenian to Oxfordian

3.2 Palaeogeography and Facies: Kimmeridgian to Tithonian

3.3 Palaeogeography and Facies: Berriasian

3.4 Palaeogeography, Facies and Isopach: Valanginian

3.5 Palaeogeography, Facies and Isopach: Hauterivian

3.6 Palaeogeography, Facies and Isopach: Barremian

3.7 Palaeogeography, Facies and Isopach: Aptian

3.8 Palaeogeography, Facies and Isopach: Albian

3.9 Palaeogeography, Facies and Isopach: Cenomanian

3.10 Palaeogeography, Facies and Isopach: Turonian

3.11 Palaeogeography, Facies and Isopach: Coniacian

3.12 Palaeogeography, Facies and Isopach: Santonian

3.13 Palaeogeography, Facies and Isopach: Campanian

3.14 Palaeogeography, Facies and Isopach: Maastrichtian

3.15 Palaeogeography, Facies and Isopach: Danian

3.16 Palaeogeography, Facies and Isopach: Palaeocene/Eocene

3.17 Palaeogeography, Facies and Isopach: Maykopian

3.18 Palaeogeography, Facies and Isopach: Chokrakian

3.19 Palaeogeography, Facies and Isopach: Karaganian

3.20 Palaeogeography, Facies and Isopach: Konkian

3.21 Palaeogeography and Facies: Lower and Middle Sarmatian

3.22 Paleogeography, Facies and Isopach: Upper Sarmatian

3.23 Palaeogeography and Facies and Isopach: Pontian

4.1 Map of Producing Oilfields and ‘Prospective Structures’

4.2 Base Maikopian ApproximateDepth

4.3 Depth/Temperature Profile: Siazan Oilfield

4.4 Estimated Temperatures at 500 m

4.5 Estimated Temperatures at 3000 m

4.6 Maturation History: Yalama

4.7 Maturation History: Khachmas

4.8 Maturation History: Gaynarja

4.9 Maturation History: Offshore, East Apsheron Syncline

4.10 Main Hydrocarbon Plays


1. Geoseismic Sections (Offshore)

2. Field Section Correlation Panel (Onshore)

3. Jimichay (Lower-Middle Jurassic) Outcrop Data

4. Kudialchay Gorge (Jurassic-Cretaceous) Outcrop Data

5. Shurabad Village (Upper Cretaceous) Outcrop Data

6. Koun Series (Eocene): Khajy Zeynalabdin, Gobustan, Perekishkul. Outcrop Data

7. Altygach Village Area(Lower Cretaceous) Outcrop Data

8. Gizilgazy Valley (Upper Cretaceous) Outcrop Data

The Tectonic Development of the South Caspian Sea Basin

The Tectonic Development of the South Caspian Sea Basin

  • The executive companies: GIA / First Exchange Corporation
  • The year of publication: 1998
  • Code: FEC 3103
  • Volumes: total 1
    volumes with appendixes in same amount: 1


FIRST EXCHANGE Corporation (FEC), in cooperation with the Geologic Institute of Azerbaijan (GIA), has compiled, translated, and edited all known, relevant, but previously difficult to find, Former Soviet Union (FSU) geologic and geophysical research regarding the complex tectonic evolution of the South Caspian Sea Basin.

Drilling and subsequent oil and gas production, in combination with regional and detailed geologic and geophysical research, has demonstrated an enormous hydrocarbon potential underlying the South Caspian Basin and surrounding region. Production, drilling, geologic mapping, outcrop study, seismic reflection and refraction, gravity, and magnetic surveys have the demonstrated potential of Jurassic to Quaternary reservoirs.

Beginning in the Early Jurassic and continuing into the Miocene, oil systems consisting of thick shale sequence source rocks and seals, and sandstone and carbonate reservoirs were deposited in a widespread extensional miogeoclinal basin at the south edge of the Eurasian plate. Extensive and complex regional Pliocene and Quaternary Alpine thrusting and folding, which continue at present day as demonstrated by Neotectonics, have been superimposed on previously existing structures with hydrocarbon potential. Late Alpine orogenic tectonic compression has created more than 1000 anticlines but less than 150 have been explored. In addition, very little of the stratigraphic trap potential has been tested.

Approximately 75 summaries and 450 figures provide easy access to the wealth of information on the complex tectonics and structure summarized in the report sections on regional tectonic elements, crustal structure, Phanerozoic regional and basin geology, modern tectonism and plate tectonics. Summary information regarding the geologic and geophysical information on the tectonic evolution of oil systems in the South Caspian Basin will facilitate the evaluation of hydrocarbon potential in the region.

The South Caspian Sea Basin Tectonic Atlas Table of Contents is presented below.


Chapter 1: General Introduction

  • The Position of Causasus in the Alpine belt
  • The fault tectonics of the South Caspian
  • Composite stratigraphic sections
  • Paleomagnetics (general)
  • Geomorphology
  • Mud volcanoes
  • Neotectonics (general)
  • Lineament Tectonics (general)
  • Seismology (general)
  • Gravity/Magnetic fields (general)
  • Heat flows and temperatures (general)
  • Seismic and Density profiles (general)
  • Structural and Thickness maps of earth crust layers (general)
  • Tectonics of Azerbaijan (general)

    Chapter 2: Regional

    • Great Caucasus
    • Lesser Caucasus
    • Talysh
    • Elburs
    • Kopetdag and Balkhan
    • Middle Caspian Subbasin
    • Kurian Subbasin
    • Central South Caspian Subbasin
    • West Turkmenistan Subbasin

    Chapter 3: Geosyncline Conceptions

    • Magmatism and Deep Structure
    • Seismotectonics
    • Evolution of the South Caspian Basin
    • Shalpo’s Sedimentation Notes and Paleotectonics Profiles
    • Lithostratigraphic Correlations

    Chapter 4:

    • Plate Tectonics Conceptions
    • Various Authors Discussion

    Chapter 5:

    • References


    The report consists of 155 plates and accompanying abstracts. The compilation utilizes approximately 120 references out of 300 that were closely examined. Most plates consist of interpreted figures and summary text.

    There is available additional underlying Russian text (available for review). The GIA can also allow participants access to original Russian documents during pre-arranged appointments and by paying daily consulting charges.