Ana Səhifə / Haqqımızda / Hesabatlar


Hazard from Onshore Mud Volcanoes

Hazard from Onshore Mud Volcanoes

  • The executive companies: GIA / Azerbaijan International Oil Company (AIOC)
  • The year of publication: June 1995
  • Code: C-95-OPS-39
  • Volumes: total 3
    volumes with appendixes in same amount: 3


Eastern Azerbaijan and the adjacent Caspian Sea accommodates 227 mud volcanoes. Between 1810 and 1995, 236 eruptions have been recorded on 67 mud volcanoes. The remaining 160 mud volcanoes are quescent, but not extint; an eruption could occur at any moment on any of them. Thus, the mud volcanop on Zenbil (Duvanni) Island was characterized by gentle gryphon-dome activity for over 150 years, until 1961 when the first eruption occurred, which was repeated in 1995. Before the 1964 eruptions of Airantekyan on signs of activity had been observed. Subsequent eruptions took place in 1969, 1980 and 1990. Therefore, eruptions of mud volcanoes whic are in a quiscent, or even inactive phase, as with earthquakes, cannot be precisely predicted.

Twelve onshore and 3 offshore (island) volcanoes along the coast were selected to act as representative (or standard) examples during the present work. The volcanoes selected are characterized by frequent and powerful eruptions, and therefore present the greatest hazard t the surrounding environment.

Results of field studies of 15 mud volcanoes, together with interpretations of aerial and satellite photographs, are presented in this study. The data obtained from mud volcanoes on the western margin of the South Caspian Basin have been synthesised and analyses, and used as the basis of an evaluation of the parameters of mud-volcanic activity.

One of the main aims of this work is to study possible hazards whih may arise in the area of active mud volcanoes. In order to achieve this, the characteristics of mud-volcano activity, the extent of mud-volcanoc breccia, the lenght of outflow tongues, the dimensions of fractures and crush-zones within the breccia, and the crush-zones within the breccia, and the aerial development of domes, salses and gryphons have been determined. Radiometric studies have baan undertaken to distinguish concealed fractures. The thermal field of mud volcanoes has also been studied. This has resulted resulted in an assessment of the hazard arising from paroxysmic eruptions of mud volcanoes, allowing for flows of mud-volcano breccia, fractures, crush zones and subsidence, together with powerful emissions of burining gas.


  1. List of text figures
  2. List of text tables
  3. List of figures in enclosures
  4. List of aerial photographs in enclosures
  5. List of photographs in enclosures
  6. List of aerial photographic surveys in enclosures


Chapter I. General information about mud volcanoes

1.1 A little about mud-volcano eruptions1.2 Use of terms

Chapter II. Classification of mud volcanoes and their interpretations

Chapter III. Results of field studies and interpretations of aerial phorograph and aerial survey data

3.1 Results of field studies of representative mud volcanoes3.2 Interpretation of data from remote sensing surveys

Chapter IV. Evaluation of parameters of mud-volcanic activity

4.1 Craters, and flows of mud-volcanic breccia4.2 Fractures, and zones of uplifts and subsidence4.3 Gas emissions from mud volcanoes4.4 Analysis of results of interpretation of satellite and aerial photography4.5 Results of radiometric studies4.6 Thermal fields on mud volcanoes

Chapter V. Periodicity of mud-volcano eruptions

5.1 Results of statistical analysis of data from mud volcano eruptions

Chapter VI. Possible hazards in areas of mud volcanoes

6.1 Danger from flows of mud-volcano breccia6.2 Possible hazards from various fractures on mud volcanoes6.3 Danger from gas emissions on mud volcanoes when developing areas where they occur


Complete list of the mud volcanoes of Azerbaijan


Calibrated Thermal Modeling and Fluid Inclusions Study: South Caspian Basin

Calibrated Thermal Modeling and Fluid Inclusions Study: South Caspian Basin

  • The executive companies: GIA / Exxon
  • The year of publication: December 1996
  • Code: -
  • Volumes: total 1
    volumes with appendixes in same amount: 1


Calibrated thermal models of the Azerbaijan sector of the South Caspian Sea were built in order to develop thermal boundary conditions for use in models in interested areas. Models are built on extensive geothermal data compiled by the Geology Institute of Azerbaijan National Academy of Siences (GIA). As part of this study we also evaluated the effect of sediment undecompaction on thermal histories.

Fluid inclusions in sandstones were examined to gain insight into the distribution and history of oil and gas in the basin. We constructed hydrocarbon yield models based on the thermal models to address the same question.

Our analyses indicate that the western South Caspian Basin is cold. Rapid recent sedimentation has driven the basin far from steady-state thermal conditions. In addition, little heat is fluxed into basin from the base of the sedimentary section, and the sediments generate low levels of radiogenic heat. Although undercompaction may reduce thermal conductivities by up to 20%, this effect is far overshadowed by non-steady-state thermal effects. These factors push the top of the oil window (based on maturities) to depths as great as 8000 m.

Interpreted low maturities throughout the Tertiary section preclude the generation of high-maturity gas (i.e. gas generated by cracking of oil) in that section. This interference combined with available data on gas geochemistry suggests that gas distribution is a source- related phenomenon. Fluid inclusions analyses offered no further constraints on this problem because hydrocarbon inclusions associated with the present basin system are absent.

Geothermal data provided by GIA include compilations of:
  1. Wellbore temperatures of shut-in exploration and production wells.
  2. Measurements of U, Th, and K concentrations of rock samples based omn spectral gamma ray data.
  3. Thermal conductivities.

We used these data in a 1-D compactoional burial and conductive heat flow model to calculate temperature histories; temperature data were used to calibrate the models. Published data on source rock character were used with the resulting temperature histories to calculate oil and gas yield histories for possible source intervals.




  • Geothermal Data: S.Caspian Basin. Evaluation of GIA Data and Physical Insights
  • Thermal Modeling of the S.Caspian Basin
  • Overpressure Modeling of the S.Caspian Basin:
  • Impact on Thermal Conductivities, Thermal States, and Maturation
  • Source Yield Modeling - Implications for the Distribution of Hydrocarbon Types



  • Appendix 1. Joint Study Agreement
  • Appendix 2. Temperature Data
  • Appendix 3. Radioactive Elements
  • Appendix 4. Thermal Conductivity data
  • Appendix 5. Stratigraphic Sections
  • Appendix 6. Summary Plots of Burial, Thermal, Overpressure, and Hydrocarbon Yield Models
  • Appendix 7. XRD Data of Shale Core Sample from Umid Structure
  • Appendix 8. Preliminary Results of Fluid Inclusions Analyses from the South caspian Basin, Azerbaijan
Joint Study of Reservoir Rocks and Source Rocks of Talysh Zone, the Azerbaijan Republic

Joint Study of Reservoir Rocks and Source Rocks of Talysh Zone, the Azerbaijan Republic

  • The executive companies: GIA / Amoco
  • The year of publication: February 1997
  • Code: -
  • Volumes: total 1
    volumes with appendixes in same amount: 1


Talysh zone has been an object of long-term exploration, it has been studied from all the aspects: geology, geophysics, pertology and volcanicity, as well as oil and gas content. The objective of the present paper is to study of Oligocene and Miocene deposits of Talysh zone for the purpose of studying reservoir and source properties of the rocks, these deposits consist of, to establish the source of wash-down and the facial pecularities of sedimentation basin.

The present paper is divided into six chapters.

The first chapter contains the information of general character concerning the history of geological and geophysical study of the Talysh zone. The principal results of the research conducted are mentioned, these results used in the process of performing the work under discussion.

The second chapter reflects the Talysh zone geological and tectonic structure according to the data obtained by all the previous explorers. The summary stratigraphic column of volcanogenic and sedimentary units of Talysh is enclosed as well as geological and tectonic map of Talysh, the latter scale being 1:200.000.

The third chapter chapter gives the correlation of Oligocene-Miocene units sections within Yardymly and Jalilabad sinclinoria. This chapter is made up of data, available from published literary sources, the sections of the above units being used. The above sections were sampled and described by the authors of the present report. In the process of the sections zonation and correlation the results of the gathered macrofauna and microfauna definition were used, as well as the data concerning lithology and radioactivity. In the process of correlation the material obtained from wells # 3, 6, 7, 8 and 9 (including log diagrams from wells # 3, 6 and 9), drilled in the near Novogolovka village (South-Mugan uplift). The summarized material concerning the units correlation is presented graphically in the form of columns, the scale being 1:5.000; the results obtained being used in the last chapter, telling about the dynamics of these distribution within structyral zones.

The fourth chapter consists of four parts:

  1. Lithological and physical characteristics of the units rocks, this characteristics being based upon the results of the study cencerning petrography, granulometric composition and mineralogical composition of the rocks, as well as their physical parameters - carbon content; porosity and permeability.
  2. Petrographic description of facial differences of Oligocene-Miocene units rocks.
  3. Radioactivity of rocks

The obtained data concerning the rocks structure and texture, composition and state of clastic material, the level of the rocks grains roundness and sortedness, the presence of fauna, as well as the authigenous minerals composition and the cementation character, are usedwhile considering the conditions of the units formation and while making paleogeographic reconstructions.

The fifth chapter is dedicated to the dynamics of Oligocene-Miocene units distribution about North-Talysh and fore-Talysh zones. This chapter is compiled on the basis of the data obtained by analysis of studied units different facies and thicknesses distribtuion within Yardymly and Jalilabad sinclinoria. For this purpose geodynamic profiles are built for specific periods of time, maps of thicknesses and facies are made for Oligocene-Miocene and Sarmat periods, these maps covering also the issue of sea and landre relationship, wash-down sources and sedimentation conditions in the process of the region formation.

The sixth chapter considers the issue of oil and gas bearing capacity in the region. The chapter is based upon th edata obtained for the study of wildcats and exploratory wells, drilled in North-Talysh zone in different years. As a result of this study we could find out oil horizons confinement to Chockrak and Sarmat deposits, this chapter is compiled on the basis of analysis of data concerning the rocks reservoir properties and probability of oil and gas accumulation there.

The work is completed with conclusions and the list of literature sources.


Chapter 1. Histiry of Geological and Geophysical Studies in Talysh

Chapter 2. Geological and Geophysical Constructions

Chapter 3. Correlation of Oligocene-Miocene Deposits of Talysh and fore-Talysh zones

Chapter 4. Lithological and Physical Characteristics of Oligocene and Miocene units of Talysh

Chapter 5. Geodynamic Environment of forming Cenozoic units of Talysh

Chapter 6. Some issues of oil and gas content of the region



Biostratigraphic and stratigraphic atlas of the Cretaceous, Paleogene, Neogene and Quaternary strata of Azerbaijan and the South Caspian Basin

Biostratigraphic and stratigraphic atlas of the Cretaceous, Paleogene, Neogene and Quaternary strata of Azerbaijan and the South Caspian Basin

  • The executive companies: GIA / ARCO / Chevron /
    Conoco / Mobil / Unocal
  • The year of publication: March 1997
  • Code: -
  • Volumes: total 1
    volumes with appendixes in same amount: 1


This report presents the results of a joint study between the Geology Institute of the Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences (GIA) and the BP and Statoil Alliance to investigate the remaining prospectivity within the essentially Pliocene "Productive Series" succession of Azerbaijan.

This study was conceived in early 1996, when there was a definite need for a document discussing the biostratigraphy and stratigraphy of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks of the South Caspian Basin. The last major work of this kind was published in the former Soviet Union more than 20 years ago. With ever increasing hydrocarbon exploration and development activity in onshore and offshore Azerbaijan and the surrounding Caspian area, there was opinion there could be offered important biostratigraphic and stratigraphic information which would be useful to the foreign oil campanies active in the region. A consortium of five companies (Arco, Chevron, Conoco, Mobil, and Unocal) supported this study, which lasted from May, 1996, to February, 1997.

There was decided to limit the stratigraphic coverage of this study to the Cretaceous, Paleogene, Neogene and Quaternary (Pleistocene). Each of the main suites, series, horizons, and beds which comprise this interval is discussed in the text and summarized in charts and text figures for various areas of Azerbaijan and the South Caspian Basin. Sources of information for this report inlcude previoulsy published articles by a variety of authors from our literature collection, our own previously published and unpublished work, and our microfossil analyses of a new sample set selected by the supported companies. The primary objectives of this study include: (1) biostratigraphic, stratigraphic, and chronostratigraphic information, data, and characterization of the units, including critical coments regarding reworked (recycled) fossil assemblages; (2) important fossil zonations; (3) correlations of Neogene units in Azerbaijan, the Caspian Sea, and Turkmenistan; (4) paleoenvironmental discussions and paleogeographic reconstructions; and (5) photographic documentation (62 plates) illustrating the important fossil assemblages upon which much of this and other biostratigraphic work is based.

There are also included the microfossil analyses of a new sample set made available to and selected by the participating companies for this project. The sample are from cores of wells in the Absheron archipelago, Absheron sill, Baku archipelago, and Lower Kura petroleum province.

The primary microfossils discussed and illustrated in this study are calcareous nannofissils, ostracods, and foraminifera. Other fossil groups referenced and illustrated include mollusks (gastropods and pelecypods), diatoms, radiolarians, fish otoliths, charophyte algae, and palynomorphs (spores, pollen, and dinocysts). Sixty-two photographic plates have been assembled for reference. Lists are provided for all fossil included on the plates, organized by fossil groups and geologic periods.

In Azerbaijan and the South Caspian Basin, the lithostratigraphic unirs are typically reffered to in a variety of ways, including suites (e.g. Maykop suite), horizons (e.g. Chokrak Horizon), and beds (e.g. Aucelinian Beds). These terms had been retained in this Atlas because of their common usage throughout the literature. There was not attempts to replace them with the generally equivalent western lithostratigraphic terms of groups, formations, and members. the reader should also keep in mind that some chronostratigraphic stage names (e.g. Sarmatian, Meotian, Pontian) have been historically used in a lithostratigraphic sense in this region.

There also included a large regional map of the South Caspian Basin which shows thegeneral areas mentioned in the text (e.g. PriCaspian-Kuba area; Shemakha-Gobustan area). The approximate locations ofmost of the mentioned oil fields and structures, as well as villages and towns, are indicated by black dots.



Introduction (TAB 1)


Cretaceous (TAB 2)


Lower Cretaceous

Babadag SuiteKaytar SuiteKhalchay SuiteSeptarie SuiteKhanagin SuiteAltyagach SuiteKululin SandstoneAucelian Beds

Upper Cretaceous

Kemishdag SuiteZorat BedsKemchy SuiteYunusdag SuiteAgburun Suite

Cretaceous Text - figures (C1 - C4)

Paleogene (TAB 3)

IntroductionIlkhidag SuiteSumgait SuiteKoun Suite

Paleogene Text - figures (P1 - P3)

Neogene (TAB 4)

IntroductionGeneral OverviewMaykopian SuiteTarkhanian HorizonChokrakian HorizonKaraganian Horizon (Diatom Suite-D1)Konkian Horizon (Diatom Suite-D2)Sarmatian Stage (Diatom Suite-D3)Meotian Stage (Diatom Suite-D4)Pontian StageProductive SeriesAkchagagylian Suite

Neogene Text - figures (N1 - N9)

Neogene Charts (N1 - N3)

Quaternary (TAB 5)

IntroductionApsheronian StagePleistocene

Newly analyzed sample set (TAB 6)

IntroductionSample setCalcareous nannofossils analysesOstracods, foraminifera, misc.fossils analyses

Photographic plates of key fossils (TAB 7)

Cretaceous (Plates 1-5)

Lower CretaceousUpper Cretaceous

Paleogene (Plates 6-25)

PaleoceneLower EoceneMiddle EoceneUpper EoceneOligocene (Maykopian)

Neogene (Plates 26-54)

Miocene (Tarkhanian-Chokrakian)Miocene (Doiatom Suite)Miocene (Karaganian-Konkian)Miocene (Sarmatian)Miocene (Meotian)Miocene (Pontian)Productive SeriesUpper Miocene (Lower Productive Series)Lower Pliocene (Upper Productive Series)Upper Pliocene (Akchagylian)

Quaternary (Plates 55-62)

EoPleistocene (Apsheronian)Lower Pleistocene (Bakunian)

Microfossil Lists

Calcareous nannofossilOstracodsForaminiferaOtolithsSpores and pollenDiatoms

References (TAB 8)